Members of the organization are not interested in their colleagues, almost do not listen to each other.
Members of the organization are not interested in their colleagues, almost do not listen to each other.
Arranged and generally accepted is the definition of the organization as a specific form of association of a group of individuals (two or more), whose activities are consciously coordinated by the subjects of management to streamline joint activities and achieve a common goal or objectives. The essence of social organization is that all people who come together have common interests. People come together in an organization in the name of goals that they could not achieve by acting on their own, other than at the cost of extraordinary efforts.
Why did organizations arise? What was the basis of their appearance? Obviously, two social phenomena:
synergy (by combining the efforts and will of the members of the organization, higher results are achieved than those that can be obtained by simply summing the efforts of isolated individuals); facilitation (facilitation of work in any type of joint activity).
Usually distinguish the following types of organization:
bureaucracies, ie administrative bodies and institutions; institutions of the total type (hospitals, prisons, monasteries, military units, etc.); voluntary organizations (non-governmental, commercial, non-governmental, etc.).
In the framework of the new managerial thinking, any social system is considered as socio-technical, because in modern conditions, two subsystems constantly interact:
technical, which includes not only equipment and all types of technology, etc., but also management knowledge, organizational structures, planning methods, techniques and skills, the level of training and qualifications of the workforce, its professional staff, etc.; social, which includes all forms of moral and material incentives, management style, employee participation in decision-making, career opportunities and career advancement, organizational culture, etc.
In these conditions, a modern organization should be based on the following principles:
promising activities – you can not adjust the organization to the capabilities of existing people, it is necessary to build it as a tool to achieve a clearly defined goal and select people who can ensure the achievement of this goal; single-headedness – no employee should report on their activities to more than one manager and should receive orders only from the same manager; management specializations – all repetitive actions should be firmly distributed among all employees and not duplicated; management range – one manager should not have more than 6-12 subordinates; vertical constraint of the hierarchy – the fewer hierarchical steps, the easier it is to manage the organization; delegation of authority – the leader should never do what his subordinate can do.
Thus, a modern organization must have:
small organizational units with a small number of employees, but employees with a much higher than ever, qualification and educational level; a small number of levels of the management hierarchy, almost complete abolition of the organizational pyramid; brigade organizational structures; orientation of activity on customer service; flexible, rapidly changing range of capabilities; minimum stocks and flexible production systems; higher level of production and lower costs.
The structure of social organization. Any organization has both a formal and an informal structure. The formal structure is represented by the following varieties:
job structure. It usually indicates the staffing of the organization; functional structure. For example, managers, specialists and employees of the management staff; socio-demographic structure. It distinguishes groups by age, sex, social status; professional qualification structure. It usually distinguishes groups by work experience, general and professional education, and so on.
Knowledge of these structures allows the leader to see the pros and cons of his organization, to identify its socio-psychological characteristics, as well as those personalized forces that can increase or, conversely, reduce the effectiveness of its activities.
Along with formal structures in any organization, informal structures and groups exist and seriously influence the general state of affairs. They are spontaneously emerging microgroups of people who regularly engage in informal interaction to achieve certain goals.
The reasons for the emergence of informal groups within the organization can be reduced to the following three:
dissatisfaction of its members with needs that go beyond the organization; in the informal group more opportunities to make or ask for help from colleagues; the need to be closer to those we sympathize with (American psychologists have found that at work people tend to interact with those around them at a distance of 1-1.5 m, not at a distance of several meters).
Much attention is paid to the interaction of formal and informal structures in the organization. As a result of the conducted researches a number of regularities of functioning of informal structures are revealed. First, the notion that the emergence of informal microgroups is an indicator of ineffective governance is rejected. The emergence of microgroups is an objective process caused by the needs of the individual in informal, interpersonal communication, which is lacking in the formal structure.
Secondly, it is established that in informal structures there is always a tendency to resist change. With proper diagnosis and work of the head with the microgroup, the effect of this trend is significantly reduced.
Third, any organization has one or buy a compare essay now more informal leaders who have no less influence than the leader, although they use mostly their personal, individual qualities and rely on human relationships. A leader is a member of the organization who is not an official leader, but due to his personal qualities, professional skills enjoys authority in the organization and has a significant impact on its behavior and activities.
Finally, fourth, the organization may change leaders depending on changes in activities, situations, and so on. Several types of leaders have been identified: a business leader (one who has a better idea of the essence of the case and has experience in solving the main tasks facing the group); emotional leader (has the most attractive attraction (lure – Ed.). There may also be a situational leader (one who is more than others able in a short period of time to lead most organizations).
How should the leader treat informal structures? How to manage them? Here is an algorithm recommended by experts in management psychology M. Mescon, M. Albert and F. Hedoury:
to recognize the existence of an informal structure and in no case to take measures to eliminate it and not to threaten its existence; to work with it under such a program – neutralization not of all activities, but of the one that goes against the goals of the organization; encouraging those microgroups that do not interfere but contribute to the goals of the organization; to know the leaders of microgroups, to meet with them regularly, to make the very fact of this meeting (and not the content of the conversation) public; before taking any action, calculate the possible negative consequences of their impact on informal organizations; to weaken resistance to change on the part of informal microgroups, to involve them in the development and implementation of a number of solutions; quickly publish accurate information, thus preventing the spread of rumors.
Stages of development of the organization’s team. In the process of its development, the team of any social organization goes through several stages of development. The art of team management is to correctly determine the current stage of development and timely transfer of the team to the next, higher stage. According to some psychologists, any team in its development goes through the following four stages: the emergence, formation, stabilization, improvement or disintegration. Consider them in more detail.
The stage of emergence is possible with the creation of a new organization, with the arrival of a new leader, with radical changes in the organization (change of staff, replacement of a significant number of employees who in a short time become leaders and radically change the situation in the organization). At this stage, the external organization provides targeted guidelines, designs and creates a formal structure of the organization, governing bodies, reporting system, and so on. Mutual requirements in the system “boss-subordinates” are still being developed, the relationship between employees is unstable. The members of the organization do not have experience of joint activity yet. The psychology of the organization at this stage is executive, the mood of expectation prevails.
The stage of formation involves the formation of informal groups, when external influences are replaced by internal impulses, as well as group opinion is formed. This stage is especially difficult to manage the organization. On the one hand, the creation of informal groups is an objective process, and the leader has no power to prevent it. On the other hand, significant differentiation, especially in the presence of strong informal leaders, can complicate the basic tasks of the organization. That is why the main thing for the leader at this stage is, first, the skillful distribution of the balance of power between informal groups (through the setting of differentiated tasks, incentives, individual approach to each group or individual performers); secondly, in holding joint events (sports, cultural, etc.).
The stage of stabilization is characterized by the achievement of a certain maturity of the organization. The informal structure of the team has already been created and is operating, the conditions of balance have been determined, the social norms of the team have been formed, and group opinion has been formed. Such a team is quite stable, can withstand external influences. But at this stage the development of the team does not stop. Stabilization means only the end of the formation of informal groups, structures, norms.
The stage of stabilization inevitably leads to either the stage of improvement or the collapse of the organization.
American psychologists M. Woodcock and D. Francis identify the following five stages of group dynamics of the organization.
Grinding. The members of the organization look at each other. The degree of personal interest in working in this organization is determined, personal feelings and experiences are masked or hidden. Members of the organization are not interested in their colleagues, almost do not listen to each other. There is virtually no creative and inspiring teamwork.